Each essay must have an introduction and a conclusion; each essay must quote and
Each essay must have an introduction and a conclusion; each essay must quote and
Each essay must have an introduction and a conclusion; each essay must quote and comment precise texts and/or events. I do not want general ideas without any reference ; I do not want neither a patchwork of quotations without commentaries. Each essay must present a coherent reflection and synthesis of what we have seen in this class. The essays must be entirely written, not presented as notes. Sources: Antiquity Plato, Crito ; Aristotle, Politics (extracts of book 1 and 3) Thucydides, The Peloponesian War (Speech of Pericles) Cicero, On the Republic, book 1 ; On the Laws (book 1 and beginning of book II) Polybius, Histories, book 6 ; Livy, extracts Plutarch, Life of Solon ; Life of Tiberius and Caius Gracchus Aelius Aristides, Eulogy of Rome Early Modern Period : Magna Carta (1215) ; Habeas Corpus (1679) ; Bill of rights (1689) (online) Locke, On civil government II, 9, 123-131 Rousseau, The Social Contract, book 1 American and French Revolution American Declaration of Independance (July 4 1776) ; AmericanConstitution (December 1791 (abstracts) ; Federalist papers (a selection) ; French Declaration of Human and Civic Rights (August 26, 1789). Modern Times: Benjamin Constant, Political writings : The Liberty of the Ancients compared to that of the Moderns Karl Marx, The Jewish Question Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America II, 2-7 ; and especially II, 2 Lincoln’s Gettisburg address (19 November 1863) Charles Taylor, Multiculturalism and the politics of recognition, Princeton University Press, 1992, p. 25-73 A selection of modern bibliography will be added: 1- John G. A. Pocock. "The Ideal of Citizenship since Classical Times." Queens Quarterly 99: 33-55; reprinted in Ronald Beiner, ed., Theorizing Citizenship, 1995, 33-55 2-Michael Ignatieff, “The Myth of Citizenship”, in Beiner, Theorizing Citizenship, 53-76; 3-Peter Sahlins. “The Eighteenth Century Citizenship Revolution in France,” in Migration Control in The North Atlantic World (2003). 4-Iris Marion Young, “Polity and Group Difference: A Critique of the Ideal of Universal Citizenship,” in Beiner, Theorizing Citizenship 175-207; 5-Shafir, G. "Introduction: The Evolving Tradition of Citizenship." Citizenship Debates. A reader, 1998 6-Joseph H. Carens, “Aliens and Citizens: The Case for Open Borders,” in Beiner, 229-50.` 7- Delanty, Gerard. Citizenship in a Global Age: Society, Culture, Politics. Open University Press: Philadelphia, 2000. 8. Th. Humphrey Marshall, Citizenship and social class (1950)

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