Assignment: In the book, Salem Possessed, and the article “Tituba’s Confession,
Assignment: In the book, Salem Possessed, and the article “Tituba’s Confession,
Assignment: In the book, Salem Possessed, and the article “Tituba’s Confession,” which people actually did something that anthropologists would classify as magic or witchcraft? Analyze their actions according to the anthropological definitions of “magic” and “witch” (see definitions below). Find passages in the book that describe the actions of any individuals around Salem that anthropologists would classify as magic or witchcraft practices. Please note that many people around Salem were accused, but they did not all do things that anthropologists would classify as magic or witchcraft; other people actually did things that would be considered magic or witchcraft, but were not accused. Provide a detailed description in your own words (paraphrase), and explain why such actions are considered magic or witchcraft according to the anthropological definitions below. Explain why the accusers in Salem might have accused some and ignored others who did anything magical or witchcraft-like. There are numerous instances in the book, so pick and choose your examples carefully to give the best analysis. Three examples is standard in a short paper like this, but you’re welcome to include more. The Puritans believed that witches harmed people through magic. But for most of the accused, there was little material evidence that they were doing anything that involved the use of magic. There were also some who were not accused who were doing things that anthropologists would classify as magic or witchcraft. The Puritans accused people of witchcraft based on “spectral evidence,” which would not stand up in a court today. The accusation of spectral evidence is not the same thing as actual behaviors that indicate use of magic or witchcraft; it was just “made up” stories by the accuser. What you should be looking for is actual behavior that anthropologists would classify as magic or witchcraft. Definitions: Anthropological definition of “witch” – A “witch” is a person who is suspected of harming others through supernatural means [“using magic”], whether intentionally or unintentionally. Such practices are “witchcraft.” Anthropological definition of “magic” – “Magic is a practice that effects change through supernatural force or energy, by invoking, acquiring and using the power of the spirit world to accomplish specific, intended, aims; magic includes the use of spells, formulas, and incantations used with spirits, deities or with impersonal forces; a belief in magic exists in all cultures, and in all religions.” Keep in mind that magic can be used either to help people or to harm people. Sir James George Frazer distinguished two types of magic: -- imitative magic (also called "homeopathic" magic) – produces a desired effect by imitating the magical action desired; for example, drinking an infusion of lung-shaped leaves to remedy a lung infection; sticking pins in voodoo dolls to imitate the action of stabbing someone, or of magic darts entering their body. To paraphrase Frazer's words, "Like produces like, or has an effect that resembles its cause." -- contagious magic – whatever is done to an object is believed to affect a person who once had contact with it; so, contagious magic would be a spell that is cast over an article of clothing, someone's possessions and, especially, body products from the intended victim, such as a lock of hair or fingernail clippings. “Contagious” has to do with direct contact. To paraphrase Frazer's words, "Things which have once been in contact with each other continue to act on each other at a distance after the physical contact has been severed." Details: Guidelines: These instructions are very detailed, so that students who want to know how to make a good grade will know what is expected, and how the papers will be graded. Study the slide shows “How to Write an Expository Essay,” and “How to Paraphrase” for help with writing and guidelines on how the papers are graded. One of the biggest mistakes students make is to not read instructions carefully. Use the checklist to make sure you have covered all bases (see Checklist, separate document). Overview: Make sure your paper is a Word document. Do not use “quotations.” Paraphrase. Be sure to use in-text citations, with the page number or location number in every instance where you found the data. Include a Title Page and a Bibliography. The minimum length required is 1,200 words – just the text of your analysis, not the title page or bibliography. Students who are going to use their paper for the Writing Proficiency Portfolio (WPE) are welcome to write longer papers to fulfill the length requirement for WPE. Do not use footnotes, endnotes, or subtitles. Double-space. Format in Microsoft Word. Make the title of your Word file include your first and last name. Upload on Blackboard, and be sure to keep a copy of your confirmation number or receipt. What you need to do, to prepare: First, read Salem Possessed and “Tituba’s Confession.” These two sources offer somewhat different perspectives on witchcraft practices in 1692 Salem. Look for evidence of people “using magic” according to the definitions provided at the beginning of this assignment. Pick at least three (or more) instances where it could be argued that “magic or witchcraft was being used” and discuss them, weighing the evidence with anthropological concepts. Overview: Make sure your paper is a Word document. Do not use “quotations.” Paraphrase. Be sure to use in-text citations, with the page number or location number in every instance where you found the data. Include a Title Page and a Bibliography. The minimum length required is 1,200 words – just the text of your analysis, not the title page or bibliography. Students who are going to use their paper for the Writing Proficiency Portfolio (WPE) are welcome to write longer papers to fulfill the length requirement for WPE. Do not use footnotes, endnotes, or subtitles. Double-space. Format in Microsoft Word. What you need to do, to prepare: First, read Salem Possessed and “Tituba’s Confession.” These two sources offer somewhat different perspectives on witchcraft practices in 1692 Salem. Look for evidence of people “using magic” according to the definitions provided at the beginning of this assignment. Pick at least three (or more) instances where it could be argued that “magic or witchcraft was being used” and discuss them, weighing the evidence with anthropological concepts. Sources: Only use these two sources, and not any other sources: the book Salem Possessed and the article “Tituba’s Confession.” Do not copy any material off the Internet or in any other sources. All of your data should come from just these two sources. Use the definitions provided in this assignment – do not cite dictionaries, encyclopedias, or Wikipedia for anything. Rubric - Suggested Structure (Expository Essay Style): This is only a suggested structure. The essay must be in expository essay style, which generally follows a structure like the one below. 1. Introduction: The first paragraph introduces the essay topic, as well as the concepts you are going to use to analyze it. One of the sentences in the first paragraph must clearly state the thesis of your essay – explain your position on the use of magic in 1692 Salem. Another sentence should provide a road map that briefly tells the reader at least three instances that you are going to analyze from the sources that anthropologists would consider as “using magic” or “engaging in witchcraft.” This paragraph should be around one-third or one-half a page. 2. Background: The second paragraph should concisely summarize what happened in 1692 Salem, in a few sentences. This paragraph should be around one-third or one-half a page. Do not use “quotations” as a replacement for an explanation in your own words. 3. Analysis (several paragraphs): Subsequent paragraphs analyze the examples of instances where you determined someone was “using magic or witchcraft” according to the above anthropological definitions. Organize your paragraphs around specific examples or around people, whichever way you prefer. Each paragraph should be about half a page. There may be some cases where you want to expand your analysis; if a paragraph becomes longer than half a page, look to see if it can be divided into two or more issues that can be analyzed in separate paragraphs. 4. Conclusion: The last paragraph should offer some overall insights (something more than just a summary of the points you already made). What patterns do you detect in the 1692 Salem witch hunt? Format: The paper has to be formatted in Microsoft Word, or it will not be accepted, because I use Word technology to grade the papers. Your paper must have a separate title page at the beginning and a separate bibliography page at the end, all in the same (single) Word file as the text of your paper. Do not use footnotes, endnotes, photos, or photos and decorations. Double-space the text of your essay. Use one-inch margins. Do not right-justify the text. Use 12-point font that is easy to read such as Cambria (Mac) or Times (PC). The Title Page must not have any extra formatting in it – no Microsoft picture frames or style formats – just type the title, your name, course number, etc., on the title page, and that’s all. Keep it simple and business-like. Use the Chicago style of citing sources (Author-Date-Page) in each in-text citation (inside of your sentences) and place the full reference information in the bibliography (author’s full name, date, full title of the work, place of publication, name of publisher). Be sure to include a page number or location number for all citations.

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