Anatomy 58 final exam: 10 questions, 10 pts each + 2 extra credit (reproductive), at 5 pts each Submit your answers as text or an uploaded document - Answer the following questions using appropriate terminology from your lab/course/lecture notes. - OPEN BOOK, so spelling and completeness count! - Answer each question thoroughly. No partial credit for extra/incorrect information - choose your words wisely! - Answers can be brief! Lists or charts or drawings are fine if you prefer. - Answers should be in your own words. Many Googled answers were submitted during the last exam, with the same stilted/odd language (much of it not contained in our course/lab/lecture notes) present in many students' answers. - Googled answers will receive zero credit. - Good luck! RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: The shelter in place has coincided with the height of spring and fall seasonal allergy season, which causes sneezing, runny eyes, and "hay fever". This is due to hypersensitivity to pollen and other seasonal allergens, which can exacerbate asthma symptoms. You have a friend (Sniffy) who uses steroid nasal spray to manage her sneezing and runny nose. You have another friend (Hacky) who uses an oral inhaler to control his allergy-induced asthma. 1) Sniffy has decided to stop using her nasal spray medication during the coronavirus outbreak because "it's not safe", while Hacky says "that's crazy", and continues to use his inhaler twice daily. Which friend is correct? Defend your answer. Your answer should include how coronavirus enters the body/cells and the effect of steroids on the immune system. 2) Nasal sprays and asthma inhalers affect different parts of the respiratory tract (nasal passage & bronchioles, respectively). How do these two locations differ from each other? Your answer should include: overall structural/functional differences/features, ET type, zones, etc. 3) Describe the structure and function of an alveolus including all cell types and how gas is exchanged between the organism and the outside. 4) What specific structure(s) of the alveoli is/are affected by SARS-Cov2? DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Many people have gained weight during the shelter in place from eating lots of extra food and doing lots of baking. Describe the structure and function of the digestive starting at the oral cavity and ending at the anus. Your answer should include details about: 5) functions occurring at each part 6) how the layering of each area varies/has modifications that differ from the basic template (for example, ET, submucosa, muscularis, etc) 7) all fluids or substances that enter/leave the lumen along the way from cells, organs, glands, etc 8) How do nutrients get from the lumen of the GI tract to the cells in the brain? Your answer should include the layers of the GI tract crossed (in order), and the vessels involved (in order). URINARY SYSTEM Alcohol consumption has increased during the shelter in place, causing many more trips to the bathroom. Describe the structures involved in urine formation, starting at the afferent arteriole and ending with the external urethral meatus. Your answer should include: 9) all the named structures (microscopic and gross) that are involved, and include the names for the fluids involved - what are the fluids called and where do they get renamed along the way? Why/how does urination increase as a result of alcohol consumption? Your answer should include: 10) the specific substances and microscopic structures involved and the areas in which these substances come from/act on/go to. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM - EXTRA CREDIT (5 pts each) People surmise that as a result of the extended shelter in place there will be a “baby boom" as a result of the pandemic because many people had more free time to have sex. Extra credit a) Trace the path of a sperm cell from the site of its creation to the site of fertilization. Include all relevant structures and fluids along the way that affect sperm, that sperm pass through, and any substances that are excreted into the lumen of the male and female reproductive tract. Extra credit b) In January 2021 a "pandemic baby" is born with ambiguous genitals that don't fall neatly into the category of "male" or "female". How can this be explained based on what was covered in lecture?